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性别和年龄对学龄前长子女同胞关系的影响

冼丹霞 赵雅芬 张琰 张晶宇 尹晓娜 邱双燕 吴剑波 温国明 卢大力

冼丹霞, 赵雅芬, 张琰, 张晶宇, 尹晓娜, 邱双燕, 吴剑波, 温国明, 卢大力. 性别和年龄对学龄前长子女同胞关系的影响[J]. 中华疾病控制杂志, 2023, 27(11): 1314-1319. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2023.11.012
引用本文: 冼丹霞, 赵雅芬, 张琰, 张晶宇, 尹晓娜, 邱双燕, 吴剑波, 温国明, 卢大力. 性别和年龄对学龄前长子女同胞关系的影响[J]. 中华疾病控制杂志, 2023, 27(11): 1314-1319. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2023.11.012
XIAN Danxia, ZHAO Yafen, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Jingyu, YIN Xiaona, QIU Shuangyan, WU Jianbo, WEN Guoming, LU Dali. Effects of gender and age on sibling relationship of first-born children at preschool age[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION, 2023, 27(11): 1314-1319. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2023.11.012
Citation: XIAN Danxia, ZHAO Yafen, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Jingyu, YIN Xiaona, QIU Shuangyan, WU Jianbo, WEN Guoming, LU Dali. Effects of gender and age on sibling relationship of first-born children at preschool age[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION, 2023, 27(11): 1314-1319. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2023.11.012

性别和年龄对学龄前长子女同胞关系的影响

doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2023.11.012
基金项目: 

深圳市龙华区医疗卫生科研项目 2020192

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    卢大力,E-mail: childpsy2012@163.com

  • 中图分类号: R749.94

Effects of gender and age on sibling relationship of first-born children at preschool age

Funds: 

Shenzhen Longhua Medical and Health Research Project 2020192

More Information
  • 摘要:   目的  研究性别和年龄对学龄前长子女同胞关系的影响。  方法  采用整群抽样方法抽取深圳市龙华区全区幼儿园3~6岁有弟弟/妹妹的长子女作为研究对象,共8 449例,最终纳入分析儿童8 419例。用自制问卷收集一般人口学资料,用同胞关系量表(sibling inventory of behavior, SIB)评估同胞关系,包括积极关系(陪伴、共情和教导)和消极关系(竞争、攻击和回避),共6个维度。  结果  长子的同胞攻击维度得分高于长女,而同胞陪伴、同胞共情和同胞教导维度得分则低于长女,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);同性同胞的竞争维度得分较异性同胞高,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);不同同胞组合在同胞关系的6个维度差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);随着年龄的增长,不同年龄儿童在同胞回避、陪伴、共情、教导4个维度中得分差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。分层回归分析显示,同胞关系中的共情维度和教导维度,最终模型(模型3)纳入性别、年龄和同胞关系构成3个变量,差异均有统计学意义(R2=0.011, F=32.396, 均P<0.001;R2=0.021, F=58.921, 均P<0.001)。  结论  长子女的性别和年龄对同胞关系的发展有影响。长女和5~6岁的儿童更容易发展积极的同胞关系。
  • 表  1  研究对象的一般人口学特征

    Table  1.   General demographic characteristics of the subjects

    项目Item 长子女性别Gender of first-born children 长子女年龄组/岁Age of first-born children/year

    Male

    Female
    t2
    值value
    P
    value
    3~<4 4~<5 5~<6 6~<7 F2
    值value
    P
    value
    深圳户籍Registered residence in Shenzhen 0.626 0.418 0.426 0.623
      是Yes 2 119 2 324 594 1 372 1 813 664
      否No 1 862 2 114 533 1 268 1 606 569
    母亲生育年龄/岁, (x±s)
    Maternal reproductive age/years, (x±s)
    26.30
    ±3.64
    26.45
    ±3.57
    -1.882 0.112 26.18
    ±3.43
    26.31
    ±3.73
    26.27
    ±3.46
    26.03
    ±3.22
    2.944 0.095
    母亲学历Mother′s educational background 0.358 0.723 1.721 0.137
      初中及以下Junior high school and below 575 623 179 369 481 169
      高中或中专Senior school or technical secondary school 786 891 191 531 685 270
      大学及以上University and above 2 596 2 893 823 1 662 2 264 740
    母亲婚姻状况Mother′s marital status 0.236 0.814 4.705 0.062
      结婚Marry 3 949 4 397 1 133 2 593 3 422 1 198
      离异/丧偶/未婚Divorce/Widow/Unmarried 32 40 10 15 32 15
    父亲生育年龄/岁, (x±s)
    Father′s reproductive age/years, (x±s)
    28.39
    ±4.23
    28.51
    ±4.17
    -1.302 0.165 28.37
    ±4.15
    28.41
    ±4.29
    28.26
    ±4.04
    28.12
    ±3.99
    1.948 0.106
    父亲学历Father′s educational background 4.250 0.071 1.654 0.151
      初中及以下Junior high school and below 524 584 155 340 457 156
     高中或中专Senior school or technical secondary school 790 961 241 549 709 252
      大学及以上University and above 2 635 2 858 737 1 681 2 291 781
    父亲婚姻状况Father′s marital status 0.324 0.767 7.454 0.056
      结婚Marry 3 947 4 405 1 132 2 598 3 423 1 199
      离异/丧偶/未婚Divorce/Widow/Unmarried 34 33 11 11 31 14
    家庭月收入/(元·月-1)
    Monthly household income/(yuan·month-1)
    3.947 0.079 1.436 0.156
      <10 000 575 625 165 370 493 173
      10 000~<20 000 1 399 1 650 410 967 1 222 451
      20 000~<30 000 879 961 245 585 753 256
      30 000~<40 000 467 492 142 292 405 120
      ≥40 000 660 710 191 416 561 202
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同性别间的同胞关系维度得分差异性比较

    Table  2.   Comparison of differences in scores of sibling relationship dimensions between different genders

    项目Item 长子 First-born boys
    (n=3 981)
    长女 First-born girls
    (n=4 438)
    t值value P值value
    竞争Rivalry 14.96±4.17 14.89±4.18 0.711 0.477
    攻击Aggression 12.16±3.47 11.61±3.44 7.227 <0.001
    回避Avoidance 6.51±1.89 6.45±1.81 1.441 0.150
    陪伴Companionship 23.59±3.99 24.11±3.83 -6.162 <0.001
    共情Empathy 19.01±3.46 19.63±3.27 -8.374 <0.001
    教导Teaching 14.75±2.88 15.38±2.78 -10.132 <0.001
    注:①以(x±s)表示。
    Note: ① (x±s).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同同胞性别构成间的同胞关系维度得分差异性比较

    Table  3.   Comparison of differences in scores of sibling relationship dimensions between different siblings′ gender composition

    项目Item 同性同胞 Same-sex sibling
    (n=3 941)
    异性同胞 Heterosexual sibling
    (n=4 478)
    t值value P值value
    竞争Rivalry 15.06±4.17 14.80±4.16 2.857 0.004
    攻击Aggression 11.91±3.44 11.84±3.48 0.967 0.334
    回避Avoidance 6.51±1.93 6.44±1.78 1.617 0.106
    陪伴Companionship 23.89±3.95 23.85±3.89 0.509 0.611
    共情Empathy 19.27±3.46 19.39±3.22 -1.740 0.082
    教导Teaching 15.06±2.89 15.10±2.81 -0.751 0.453
    注:①以(x±s)表示。
    Note: ① (x±s).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同同胞性别构成间的同胞关系维度得分差异性比较

    Table  4.   Comparison of differences in scores of sibling relationship dimensions between different siblings′ gender composition

    项目Item 兄弟组 ①②
    Brother group ①②
    (n=2 195)
    兄妹组①③
    Brother and sister
    group①③ (n=1 940)
    姐弟组 ①④
    Sister and brother
    group ①④ (n=2 538)
    姐妹组
    Sister group
    (n=1 746)
    F
    value
    P
    value
    竞争Rivalry 15.14±4.21 14.74±4.13 14.84±4.18 14.95±4.18 3.611 0.013
    攻击Aggression 12.23±3.46 12.04±3.49 11.68±3.46 ②③ 11.51±3.38 ②③ 18.242 <0.001
    回避Avoidance 6.57±1.97 6.44±1.80 6.44±1.76 6.42±1.88 3.033 0.028
    陪伴Companionship 23.59±4.02 23.62±3.94 24.02±3.84 ②③ 24.27±3.83 ②③④ 13.548 <0.001
    共情Empathy 18.96±3.51 19.11±3.40 19.61±3.24 ②③ 19.65±3.34 ②③ 22.804 <0.001
    教导Teaching 14.75±2.90 14.79±2.85 15.34±2.76 ②③ 15.45±2.82 ②③ 34.080 <0.001
    注:①以(x±s)表示; ②代表与兄弟组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05); ③代表与兄妹组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05); ④代表与姐弟组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。
    Note:① (x±s); ② Means it has statistical significance compared to the brother group (P<0.05); ③ Means it has statistical significance compared to the brother and sister group (P<0.05); ④ Means it has statistical significance compared to the sister and brothe group (P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  长子女不同年龄间的同胞关系维度得分差异性比较

    Table  5.   Comparison of differences in sibling relationship dimensions among first-born children of different ages

    项目Item 年龄组/岁Age group/years, (x±s) F
    value
    P
    value
    3~<4
    (n=1 147)
    4~<5
    (n=2 611)
    5~<6
    (n=3 460)
    6~<7
    (n=1 201)
    竞争Rivalry 14.63±4.18 14.94±4.20 14.97±4.15 15.05±4.20 2.431 0.063
    攻击Aggression 11.88±3.61 11.94±3.50 11.80±3.40 11.91±3.41 0.853 0.465
    回避Avoidance 6.65±1.89 6.48±1.85 6.43±1.83 6.41±1.86 4.667 0.003
    陪伴Companionship 23.20±4.23 23.76±3.95 24.03±3.81 ①② 24.27±3.77 ①② 18.088 <0.001
    共情Empathy 18.95±3.55 19.22±3.37 19.48±3.34 ①② 19.52±3.35 ①② 9.246 <0.001
    教导Teaching 14.52±2.95 14.96±2.85 15.26±2.82 ①② 15.36±2.74 ①② 25.500 <0.001
    注:①代表与兄弟组差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05); ②代表与兄妹组差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。
    Note: ① Means it has statistical significance compared to the brother group (all P<0.05); ② Means it has statistical significance compared to the brother and sister group (all P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  同胞关系各维度的分层回归分析

    Table  6.   Hierarchical regression analysis of dimensions in sibling relationship

    因变量
    Dependent variable
    自变量
    Independent variable
    模型1 Model 1 模型2 Model 2 模型3 Model 3
    系数
    Coefficient
    标化系数
    Standardization coefficient
    系数
    Coefficient
    标化系数
    Standardization coefficient
    系数
    Coefficient
    标化系数
    Standardization coefficient
    共情Empathy 截距Nodal increment 18.688 18.425 17.897
    同胞关系构成Sibling relationship 0.263 0.085 0.078 0.025 0.079 0.250
    长子女性别The gender of first-born children 0.469 0.069 0.470 0.069
    长子女年龄The age of first-born children 0.206 0.055
    R2 0.007 0.008 0.011
    F 60.772 35.828 32.396
    R2 0.007 0.001 0.003
    F 60.772 10.813 25.324
    教导Teaching 截距Nodal increment 14.422 14.158 13.418
    同胞关系构成Sibling relationship 0.268 0.103 0.084 0.032 0.084 0.032
    长子女性别The gender of first-born children 0.469 0.082 0.470 0.082
    长子女年龄The age of first-born children 0.289 0.091
    R2 0.010 0.012 0.021
    F 89.456 52.454 58.921
    R2 0.010 0.002 0.008
    F 89.456 15.299 70.985
    注:n=8 419; △R2, 指相比前一个模型,R2增加的值; △F, 指△R2对应的F值。
    P<0.001; ②P<0.05。
    Note:n=8 419; △R2 meas the increase in R2 compared to the previous model; △F meas refers to the F value corresponding to △R2.
    P<0.001; ②P<0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-20
  • 修回日期:  2022-12-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-20
  • 刊出日期:  2023-11-10

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