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CN 34-1304/RISSN 1674-3679

Administrative Authorities: National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Editing Publishing: Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Disease Control & Prevention

Established in: March 1997

Editor in Chief: Ye Dongqing(Anhui)

CN 34-1304/R ISSN 1674-3679

Core Journal of China

China Boutique Scientific and Technological Periodical

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Literature Review
Long COVID-19 and its scientific prevention and control
LIU Qiao, DU Min, LIU Jue, LIU Min
2022, 26(7): 745-749.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.001
Abstract(30) HTML(9) PDF(15)
Global literature have reported that individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 may suffer from persistent symptoms, namely long COVID-19, also known as the post-COVID-19 condition. WHO defined that long COVID-19 occurs in individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, usually 3 months from the onset of COVID-19 with symptoms and that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Symptoms of long COVID-19 include fatigue, headache dyspnea and so on, affecting multiple systems such as neurological, psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Based on the existing evidence, it is suggested to strengthen scientific research on long COVID-19, persist in a "dynamic COVID-zero strategy" currently to reduce infections, accelerate vaccination coverage, and carry out early monitoring and intervention of long COVID-19, to cope with the long-term disease and economic burden caused by long COVID-19.
Original Articles
Relationship between BMI, abdominal obesity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Chinese adults: a prospective study
ZHANG Xin, WANG Wen-juan, ZHANG Run, YOU Xiao-qing, LI Jian-hong
2022, 26(7): 750-755.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.002
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  Objective  To investigate the relationship between BMI, abdominal obesity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Chinese adults.  Methods  Eleven Provinces/Cities were selected from 2010 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance, and 60 surveillance sites were selected as follow-up spots. A total of 27 604 participants were followed up from 2016 to 2017. Finally, a total of 26 794 subjects were included in the analysis. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to analyze the relationship between BMI, abdominal obesity and the incidence of AMI.  Results  A total of 26 794 subjects were follow-up for an average of 6.0 years. During the follow-up period, of 256 cases of AMI were observed. After adjusting for relevant confounders, compared with normal waist circumference (WC) and BMI < 24 kg/m2 group, the risk of AMI in abdominal obesity and BMI < 24 kg/m2 group increased by 85% (HR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.14-3.01), and the risk of AMI in abdominal obesity group and BMI≥24 kg/m2 group increased by 56% (HR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.18). However, there was no significant correlation between the risk of AMI and the subjects with normal WC and BMI≥24 kg/m2 (HR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.49-1.47).  Conclusion  Abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for AMI regardless of BMI.
Analysis of secular trends in incidence of skin cancer in China based on Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort model
CHEN Dong-yu, YANG Xiao-yu, WANG Hong-xin, FAN Wen-long, HE Yu-qing
2022, 26(7): 756-765.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.003
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  Objective  To analyze the incidence trends of skin cancer in China and to estimate age, period, and cohort effects.  Methods  We assessed incidence trends of skin cancer in China based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to calculate the annual percentage change and average annual percentage change (AAPC). Age-period-cohort model was used to explore the age effect, period effect, and cohort effect of skin cancer.  Results  Age-standardized incidence rate of skin cancer among males and females increased significantly in China from 1990 to 2019. Joinpoint regression indicated that AAPC of malignant skin melanoma in males was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.6-3.0) and in females was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.8-3.2); AAPC of basal cell carcinoma in males was 4.2% (95% CI: 3.9-4.4) and in females was 4.0% (95% CI: 3.7-4.3); AAPC of squamous cell carcinoma in males was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.5-3.9) and in females was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.7-3.0). For both males and females, the relative risk of skin cancer incidence increased with advancing age and time period, but decreased from earlier birth cohorts to more recent birth cohorts.  Conclusions  The incidence of skin cancer shows an increasing trend from 1990 to 2019. People who born earlier, being older, and living in modern times have a higher risk of skin cancer incidence. Control and treatment of skin cancer should be paid attention to.
The detection of hypercalciuria and influencing factors among people aged 18-75 years old in six provinces of China
ZHANG Bei-bei, LIU Min, LI Yuan, ZHANG Pu-hong, BAI Ya-min, JI Ning, WU Jing, XU Jian-wei
2022, 26(7): 766-770.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.004
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  Objective  To investigate the detection of hypercalciuria and influencing factors among people aged 18-75 years old in six Provinces of China, and to provide basis for prevention of hypercalciuria and other diseases.  Methods  A total of 2 693 subjects aged 18-75 years old were selected from 6 provinces in China. Using multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Information were collected through questionnaire survey, physical measurement and 24-hours urine collection (24HUC). The 24-hours urinary calcium level was measured.  Results  A total of 2 637 subjects were included in the final analysis, of which 258 subjects were detected with hypercalciuria, and the detection rate was 9.78%. The male and female hypercalciuria detection rates were 8.47% and 11.09%, respectively (χ2 =5.124, P=0.024). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that female (OR=1.366, 95% CI: 1.051-1.778, P=0.020), people aged 45- < 60 years old (OR=2.069, 95% CI: 1.404-3.049, P < 0.001), overweight (OR=1.661, 95% CI: 1.216-2.268, P=0.001), obesity (OR=2.623, 95% CI: 1.855-3.709, P < 0.001), and people with diabetes mellitus (OR=1.988, 95% CI: 1.292-3.060, P=0.002) were related with hypercalciuria.  Conclusions  The detection rate of hypercalciuria in Chinese population is high. It is suggested that 24HUC screening should be carried out in target population to prevent hypercalciuria and other diseases as soon as possible.
Study on prevalence of metabolic syndrome and influencing factors in the population aged 60-76 in Henan Province
LI Hui, WANG Meng-wei, TIAN Hui-zi, ZHANG Han-xue, QI Min-jie, WANG Bing-yuan, FAN Lei, AN Wei-feng, KANG Kai
2022, 26(7): 771-776.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.005
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  Objective  To acknowledge the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its influencing factors in the population aged from 60 to 76 in Henan Province, providing a scientific basis for the prevention and control of metabolic syndrome.  Methods  Data resources were obtained from the questionnaire, and physical and biochemical examinations from 2015 to 2019 in China PEACE (Patient-centered evaluative assessment of cardiac events). χ2 tests and Cochran-Armitage trend χ2 were used for comparative analysis, Logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis.  Results  The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31.59% in the population aged 60-76 in Henan Province. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in females than that in males (χ2 =369.65, P < 0.001), higher in urban areas than that in rural areas (χ2 =135.50, P < 0.001), higher in low-educated people than that in highly-educated people(χ2 =22.60, P < 0.001), higher in non-smoker than that in the smoker (χ2 =169.47, P < 0.001), higher in non-drinker than that in drinker (χ2 =13.95, P < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and central obesity was 65.14%, 51.17%, and 47.01%, respectively. Female, elder age, urban, married status and drink were the main factors influencing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (all P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperglycemia and central obesity was higher in the Henan elderly. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct comprehensive lifestyle and drug interventions on populations with hypertension and diabetes. Population with prediabetes and prophase central obesity were needed to screen out. It is imperative to enhance the rate of awareness, treatment, and control of major chronic diseases among the elderly via health lectures and peer education.
Construction and analysis of ceRNA network in salivary gland tissues of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome
WU Ling-ling, LING Hua-yun, ZHOU Ying, QIU Li-juan, WANG Hong, XUE Yu, CHEN Hui-juan, WANG Ting-rui, WANG Bin
2022, 26(7): 777-783.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.006
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  Objective  The competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) regulation network in salivary gland tissues of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) was constructed by bioinformatics methods and its pathogenesis was investigated.  Methods  Differential expression analyses of messenger RNA (mRNA) dataset and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) dataset from salivary gland tissues of pSS patients were conducted based on GEO database. Target miRNA and target mRNA related to pSS were obtained through miRNA databases, and then lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA regulation network was constructed. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed for differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) in the ceRNA regulation network.  Results  A total of 214 target mRNA were obtained in the ceRNA network. KEGG analysis of different genes in the network showed that the main gene enrichment pathway were mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Hub gene JUN, CCND1, NRAS, DDX5, KAT2B, VEGFA, SIRT1, CLTA, MCM7 and RPS6KA1 were selected in pSS.  Conclusion  This study finds that the DEmRNAs in the ceRNA regulatory network mainly enriched in MAPK and AMPK signaling pathways, which provided a new idea for the diagnosis and treatment of primary Sjogren's syndrome.
Disability status and its influencing factors of the elderly in Jiading District, Shanghai
ZHANG Yan, YUAN Hong, JIN Ya-qing, YU Hong-jie
2022, 26(7): 784-789.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.007
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  Objective  To investigate the status and its influencing factors of disability among the elderly population in Jiading District, Shanghai, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of disability and the construction of healthy aging.  Methods  A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select the elderly population aged ≥60 years old in Jiading District. The World Health Survey scale conducted by WHO was used to measure the disability of the elderly. Multivariate Logistic regression model and nomogram were used to analyze the influencing factors of disability.  Results  A total of 4 773 elderly people were investigated, including 495 disabled elderly people, with a disability rate of 11.4%. The disability rate was higher in women (13.6%) than that in men (8.9%). The elderly had more disability in cognitive memory (31.7%), visual recognition (23.0%), pain and discomfort (21.6%), sleep (20.4%) and walking (13.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that aging, poor self-rated health and with two or more chronic diseases were associated with higher rates of disability (all P < 0.05). Weekly physical exercises and drinking were associated with lower rates of disability (all P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The disability rate of the elderly in Jiading District is high. The government should strength the chronic disease management, pay attention to the different care needs of the elderly, and carry out targeted early prevention and intervention.
Epidemiological characteristics and spatial aggregation of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Shandong Province from 2011 to 2020
DUAN Qing, PANG Bo, ZHANG Xiao-mei, TIAN Xue-ying, ZHANG Yu-wei, XING Yu-fang, DING Shu-jun, KOU Zeng-qiang, JIANG Xiao-lin
2022, 26(7): 790-797.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.008
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  Objective  To analyze the prevalence and spatial clustering of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Shandong Province from 2011 to 2020, and to provide the basis for SFTS prevention and control.  Methods  Case data were obtained from the Chinese Disease Control and Prevention Information System. The epidemiological characteristics and spatial aggregation of SFTS were analyzed by descriptive analysis, Joinpoint regression analysis, and spatial autocorrelation analysis.  Results  From 2011 to 2020, a total of 4 642 cases of SFTS were reported in Shandong Province, with an average annual incidence of 0.46/100 000 and 451 deaths, with an average case fatality rate of 9.72%. The peak of the disease occurs from May to September each year, and middle-aged and elderly farmers were the main population. JoinPoint regression analysis showed that the incidence of SFTS in Shandong Province had an increasing trend from 2011 to 2015, with an APC value of 38.93% (t=2.91, P=0.033), and tended to be stable from 2016 to 2020, with an APC value of 2.71% (t=0.53, P=0.620). Global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that spatial aggregation existed in the incidence of SFTS from 2012 to 2020 (all P < 0.05) except for 2011 (Moran' I=0.011, P=0.168). Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that "high-high" clustering areas were mainly concentrated in the inland areas of central Shandong such as Jinan and Zibo, and the coastal areas of eastern Shandong such as Yantai and Weihai.  Conclusions  The incidence of SFTS in Shandong Province is seasonal and spatially clustered, so it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and management of high incidence season and high-risk populations and intensify the prevention and control efforts in the inland and coastal areas of central and eastern Shandong Province.
A case-control study of venous blood chromium levels before delivery and preeclampsia
LI Wang-jun, LI Jin-bo, GUO Meng-zhu, REN Qing-wen, FENG Yong-liang, YANG Hai-lan, ZHANG Ya-wei, WANG Su-ping, WU Wei-wei
2022, 26(7): 798-802.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.009
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  Objective  To investigate the relationship between chromium (Cr) exposure during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia (PE) and its clinical subtypes.  Methods  The research subjects were pregnant women who gave birth in the Obstetrics department of the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from March 2012 to September 2016. A total of 442 cases of PE [195 cases of early-onset PE (EOPE) and 247 cases of late-onset PE (LOPE)] and 1 745 normal pregnant women were randomly selected. The general demographic characteristics, disease history, family history, etc. were collected, and the concentration of heavy metal Cr in whole blood was detected. Unconditional Logistic regression was used to analyze the level of Cr exposure and the risk of PE and its clinical subtypes.  Results  The whole blood Cr exposure level of pregnant women in the PE group was [9.54 (3.40, 39.26)] μg/L, that in the EOPE group was [9.75 (3.56, 55.38)] μg/L, and that in the LOPE group was [9.36 (3.21, 39.24)] μg/L, which were higher than that of normal pregnant women with [7.02 (0.10, 30.05)] μg/L (all P < 0.05). Using unconditional Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors such as pregnant women's age, education level, and per capita monthly income, Cr exposure levels were related to the risk of PE and its different clinical subtypes, and it was associated with a higher risk of EOPE.  Conclusion  Cr exposure in pregnancy is related to the risk of PE, and is more related to the risk of EOPE.
Turnover intention and associated factors among public health workers during the fight against COVID-19 in Guangdong Province
FANG Ying-ying, DU Zhi-cheng, LIN Xiao, GU Jing, HAO Yuan-tao
2022, 26(7): 803-807.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.010
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  Objective  To realize the current situation and influencing factors of turnover intention among public health workers fighting against COVID-19 in Guangdong Province, explore the moderating effect of social support, and provide evidence for improving the stability of epidemic prevention team.  Methods  A self-constructed online questionnaire was used to investigate the personnel of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and primary health care institutes in Guangdong Province. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the associated factors of turnover intention and the moderating role of social support.  Results  A total of 2 168 participants were collected, of which 632(29.15%) had turnover intention. Anti-epidemic public health workers with senior title, working in CDC, having a fixed establishment, sleeping ≥ 6 h, showing more job satisfaction and reporting higher leadership/colleague/relative support had lower turnover intention, while those working overnight and working overtime on rest days were more likely to report turnover intention. The interaction term "job satisfaction × family support" had a negative moderating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention.  Conclusions  A relatively high turnover intention is reported among public health workers during the fight against COVID-19 in Guangdong Province. Improving the incentive mechanism, increasing job satisfaction and providing more support to primary health workers may reduce their turnover intention.
The influencing factors of job burnout among medical staff by structural equation model
ZHANG Meng, CUI Qian, ZHU Chang-cai
2022, 26(7): 808-814.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.011
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  Objective  To understand the influencing factors and mechanism of job burnout among medical staff, and to provide the scientific basis for taking targeted intervention measures.  Methods  A total of 1 938 medical staff in a certain area of Hubei Province were selected as subjects by multi-stage random sampling method. The job burnout status was investigated by questionnaire survey. The mechanism of job burnout caused by work stress, anxiety, social support and self-efficacy was analyzed by structural equation model.  Results  The overall score of job burnout among medical staff in a certain area of Hubei Province was [34.00(25.00, 41.00)], and the detection rate of job burnout was 64.09%. Job burnout was positively correlated with work stress and anxiety (all P < 0.05), whereas it was negatively associated with social support and self-efficacy (all P < 0.05). The results of the structural equation model showed that work stress had a direct positive effect on job burnout (β=0.451, P=0.010), which was also indirectly affected by anxiety (β=0.129, P=0.010). And anxiety also had a direct positive influence on job burnout (β=0.360, P=0.010), while social support (β=-0.141, P=0.010) and moderating variables such as work stress and support utilization (β=-0.051, P=0.018) had direct negative effects on job burnout.  Conclusions  Work stress and anxiety are the risk factors of job burnout among medical staff in a certain area of Hubei Province. Work stress and anxiety can be effectively reduced by social support, especially the degree of support utilization.
Association between passive smoking exposure and insomnia in a Tibetan non-smoking population based on the propensity score
HE Rui-feng, LIANG Yi-zhi, CHEN Lin, GUO Bing
2022, 26(7): 815-819.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.012
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  Objective  To describe the distribution characteristics of passive smoking exposure and insomnia symptoms in the Tibetan non-smoking population in China. It aims to investigate the extent of association between passive smoking exposure and insomnia symptoms.  Methods  Based on the data of 7 737 Tibetan residents recruited in Lhasa from 2018 to 2019 in the Southwest Regional General Population Cohort Project, the study analyzed the association between passive smoking exposure and insomnia symptoms using the propensity score inverse probability weighting method and marginal structure model. Besides, the association between passive smoking and insomnia was compared across age, gender, BMI, adverse life events, and social support groups.  Results  The passive smoking exposure rate was 22.50%, and the insomnia detection rate was 33.67% in the survey population. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of insomnia symptoms in the passive smoking group was nearly 1.24 times higher than in the non-passive smoking exposed group (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.14-1.34). People who age ≥50 years (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54), was males (OR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.17-2.18), overweight (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47), have had an adverse life event (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.10) and moderate social support (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.12-1.92) were suffered more strongly effect of passive smoking exposure on insomnia.  Conclusions  This study suggests that passive smoking exposure is a risk factor for insomnia in the Tibetan non-smoking population. Interventions regarding reducing passive smoking exposure should be performed to promote sleep health in Tibetans.
A study on the interaction effect of platelet count and sex on prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy
YU Kai-li, LIN Zheng, QIU Mo-liang, LIU Shuang, XIE Qian-wen, RAO Wen-qing, CHEN Yuan-mei, LIN Jian-bo, HU Zhi-jian
2022, 26(7): 820-826.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.013
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  Objective  To investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative platelet count (PLT) and its interactions with gender and age in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after esophagectomy.  Methods  A total of 582 patients with ESCC were eligible for retrospective analysis between February 1, 2014, and November 30, 2018. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the comparison of the two groups was performed by using the Log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to determine prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival(DFS). Hazard ratios (HRs) and (95% CI) were used as common measures to assess relative risk.  Results  PLT only interacted with gender (HR=2.417, 95% CI: 1.150-5.078, P=0.018). Stratified analysis showed that PLT increased group was independently associated with a 71.3% risk increase for death compared with PLT normal group (HR=1.713, 95% CI: 1.203-2.441, P=0.003) in male patients; While in female patients, there was no statistical significance between groups (HR=0.590, 95% CI: 0.299-1.165, P=0.129).  Conclusions  There is an interaction between PLT and gender in predicting the prognosis of patients with ESCC after esophagectomy. Gender differences should be paid attention to when PLT is chosen to be a prognostic factor.
Application of Logistic regression and decision tree analysis in early warning indicators of hypertension and diabetes comorbidity
WU Wen-wen, TAN Xiao-dong, SUN Dong-han, LI Li
2022, 26(7): 827-833.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.014
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  Objective  To study the status and warning indicators of hypertension-diabetes comorbidity (HDC) among adults in Hubei Province, so as to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of HDC.  Methods  A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using the multi-stage stratified random sampling method among residents aged ≥18 years from 11 districts of Hubei Province. Logistic regression model and decision tree model were used to analyze the warning indicators of HDC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the prediction effects of the two models.  Results  Both Logistic regression model and decision tree model showed that work intensity, smoking, marriage, gender, BMI and age were the warning indicators of HDC (all P < 0.05). The area under ROC curve of Logistic regression model was larger than that of decision tree model (0.967 vs. 0.933, Z=9.199, P < 0.001).  Conclusions  The predictive ability of the Logistic regression model is better than that of the decision tree model. However, it is essential to combine these two different methods to describe the warning indicators of HDC. Firstly, significant main effect of warning indicators should be screened out through Logistic regression. Then, the interaction between indicators should be further analyzed by using the decision tree model, so as to provide reference for the prevention and control of HDC.
Reliability and validity of Chinese version of the social support appraisals scale for older people
LIN Yan-wei, WANG Ting-xian, NI Jin-dong
2022, 26(7): 834-838.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.015
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  Objective  To translate the English version of the social support appraisals scale (SS-A) developed by Vaux into Chinese, and to assess its reliability and validity.  Methods  Based on the Brislin translation model for translation and cross-cultural adjustment of the scale, 548 older people who met the inclusion criteria were conducted one-to-one interviews using convenience sampling, aiming to test the reliability and validity of the scale.  Results  The Chinese version of the scale contained twenty items and three dimensions. Construct validity: the exploratory factors extracts three factors, cumulative variance contribution rate was 59.706%. The confirmatory factor analysis fitting indexes: χ2/υ was 2.648, comparative fit idex (CFI) was 0.907, iciemental fit index (IFI) was 0.908, goodness of fit index (GFI) was 0.862, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) was 0.889, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.078 and root mean square residual (RMR) was 0.019. Convergent validity: average vriance extracted (AVE) was 0.579. Discrimination validity: there was a significant difference between the low group and the high group. Consistency reliability: the Cronbach's α coefficient of the total scale and three dimensions were 0.927, 0.884, 0.858, and 0.697 respectively. Test-retest reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were 0.780, 0.869, 0.655 and 0.505, respectively (all P < 0.001).  Conclusion  The Chinese version of SS-A shows sufficient reliability and validity, which can be used to evaluate social support of older people in China.
Research progress on the epidemiology and screening of esophageal cancer
LIU Yu-ying, WEI Jun-li, JIANG Rou, WU Min-qing, LI Yan-hong, XIE Chuan-bo
2022, 26(7): 839-844.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.016
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Esophageal cancer is one of the malignant tumors that seriously threaten the health of Chinese residents. China is among the belt of esophageal cancer high incident areas and has a heavy burden of esophageal cancer. Smoking, alcohol, low fruit and vegetable intake, bad eating habits, infectious, and genetic reasons are risk factors for esophageal cancer. Although liquid biopsy technology has shown high accuracy for esophageal cancer screening, endoscopy is still the standard method for screening esophageal cancer. The Chinese population had a low screening rate for esophageal cancer and more efforts should be paid to improve the screening rate.
A review of the application of mHealth intervention among men who have sex with men
LI Min, XU Zheng-cheng, HUANG Hao, ZHUANG Xun
2022, 26(7): 845-850.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.017
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With the rapid development of telecommunication technology in recent years, mobile health (mHealth) has been massively applied in the Public Health and Health Service industry, showing a great prospect in AIDS/HIV prevention and control. This article reviewed the intervention of mHealth in men who have sex with men (MSM), followed by an analysis of changes in AIDS/HIV-related high-risk behaviors, and finally evaluated its significance in AIDS/HIV prevention and control.
Short Reports
Prevalence of falls and their influencing factors and impaired balance among the elderly in Guangdong Province
LIAO Ting-ting, LIN Li-feng, LIN Xia-zi, XU Hao-feng, MENG Rui-lin, ZHENG Xue-yan, PENG Dan-dan, SONG Xiu-ling, LI Chuan
2022, 26(7): 851-856.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.018
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  Objective  To investigate the status and influencing factors of falls and impaired balance among the community elderly in Guangdong Province.  Methods  A multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to carry out a sample survey. The χ2 test was used to analyze the prevalence of falls and the rate of impaired balance among the elderly with different characteristics, and a multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of falls.  Results  In this study, the falls prevalence rate was 11.90% during the past year and the rate of impaired balance ability was 58.37%. Falls and impaired balance were more common among females, rural, illiterate, unmarried, and elderly people living alone (all P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of falls was higher in women than in men, and the occurrence of falls became more and more serious with the increase of age. The risk of falls in rural elderly was higher than that in urban elderly. The elderly were most likely to fall when walking around the house or doing housework (35.11%). The rates of bruises/contusions, fractures, sprains/strains, concussions/brain contusions and other types of injuries caused by falls were 55.77%, 22.22%, 17.09%, 1.07%, and 3.85%, respectively.  Conclusions  The prevalence of falls during the past year has been high among the elderly in Guangdong Province, and their balance ability is seriously impaired. Health education for the elderly against falls and comprehensive intervention measures based on family protection should be strengthened.
Study on influencing factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on propensity score matching
REN Jia-hui, QIAO Yu-chao, REN Hao, QUAN Di-chen, CUI Yu, ZHAO Zhi-yang, QIU Li-xia
2022, 26(7): 857-861.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.019
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  Objective  To study the relationship between COPD and living habits, individual diseases, based on balanced demographic confounding factors between the case group and the control group by the PSM.  Methods  Data from 2014 to 2015 on COPD surveillance were first employed among residents of Shanxi Province, including 277 patients in the case group and 1 795 in the control group. Afterwards, 275 randomly matched control subjects were selected using PSM in a ratio of 1:1. Besides, conditional Logistic regression was utilized to study the influencing factors of COPD.  Results  The conditional Logistic regression results, based on 275 successfully matched pairs, showed a 92.8% reduction in the risk of developing COPD among those who knew about it; the risk of developing COPD was increased by 1.489 times, 1.371 times, 1.013 times and 0.834 times among those with previous frequent coughing, respiratory disease, exposure to harmful gases and smoking respectively.  Conclusions  Better health education, smoking ban, no exposure to harmful gases and timely treatment of respiratory diseases are important measures to prevent and reduce the occurrence of COPD.
Risk assessment of lead via dietary intake in Chinese adults
LI Ming-lu, QIN Zhou, YU Yong, LI Yi-ling, LIU Jia-lin, WANGYI Bai-na, HUANG Jiao, WEI Sheng
2022, 26(7): 862-868.   doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2022.07.020
Abstract(19) HTML(9) PDF(3)
  Objective  To evaluate the health risk of lead via dietary intake among Chinese adults.  Methods  The data of dietary lead concentration from different provinces in China collected systematically from literature, combined with the nutrition and health monitoring data of Chinese adults in 2012, were used to evaluate the risk of dietary lead exposure of the adult population in China by point assessment and probability assessment. The margin of exposure (MOE) and target hazard quotient (THQ) were used to estimate dietary lead exposure's health risk.  Results  A total of 24 studies were included in this study, and 31 008 sample data were collected from 19 provinces. The top three food lead concentrations were edible mushroom (0.13 mg/kg), eggs (0.11 mg/kg), seafood and aquatic products (0.08 mg/kg). More than 70% of the dietary lead of adults in China came from cereal products (0.39 μg·kg-1·d-1), vegetables (0.22 μg·kg-1·d-1), meat (0.08 μg·kg-1·d-1). The mean of dietary lead exposure was respectively 1.07 μg·kg-1·d-1 and 1.02 μg·kg-1·d-1 for 18- < 60 years old and ≥60 years old. The MOE values of mean lead exposure for all age and sex groups were greater than 1, but the MOE values of P95 were less than 1. The THQ values were less than 1 for all age and sex groups at the mean and P95 levels.  Conclusion  The risk of dietary lead exposure for adults in China is relatively low, but some people with high exposure should be further monitored and controlled.