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上海孕产妇焦虑和抑郁现状及相关因素: 一项基于健康生态学模型的多中心研究

朱婷玉 王子文 熊晨菡 沈晔 顾婷婷 金龙妹 顾春怡 王丽萍 黄凌 施云美 吴建凤 谢震宇 蒋泓

朱婷玉, 王子文, 熊晨菡, 沈晔, 顾婷婷, 金龙妹, 顾春怡, 王丽萍, 黄凌, 施云美, 吴建凤, 谢震宇, 蒋泓. 上海孕产妇焦虑和抑郁现状及相关因素: 一项基于健康生态学模型的多中心研究[J]. 中华疾病控制杂志, 2024, 28(1): 46-55. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2024.01.008
引用本文: 朱婷玉, 王子文, 熊晨菡, 沈晔, 顾婷婷, 金龙妹, 顾春怡, 王丽萍, 黄凌, 施云美, 吴建凤, 谢震宇, 蒋泓. 上海孕产妇焦虑和抑郁现状及相关因素: 一项基于健康生态学模型的多中心研究[J]. 中华疾病控制杂志, 2024, 28(1): 46-55. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2024.01.008
ZHU Tingyu, WANG Ziwen, XIONG Chenhan, SHEN Ye, GU Tingting, JIN Longmei, GU Chunyi, WANG Liping, HUANG Ling, SHI Yunmei, WU Jianfeng, XIE Zhenyu, JIANG Hong. The prevalence and related factors of maternal anxiety and depression in Shanghai: a multicenter study based on health ecology model[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION, 2024, 28(1): 46-55. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2024.01.008
Citation: ZHU Tingyu, WANG Ziwen, XIONG Chenhan, SHEN Ye, GU Tingting, JIN Longmei, GU Chunyi, WANG Liping, HUANG Ling, SHI Yunmei, WU Jianfeng, XIE Zhenyu, JIANG Hong. The prevalence and related factors of maternal anxiety and depression in Shanghai: a multicenter study based on health ecology model[J]. CHINESE JOURNAL OF DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION, 2024, 28(1): 46-55. doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2024.01.008

上海孕产妇焦虑和抑郁现状及相关因素: 一项基于健康生态学模型的多中心研究

doi: 10.16462/j.cnki.zhjbkz.2024.01.008
基金项目: 

复旦大学公共卫生学院-嘉定区卫生健康委公共卫生高质量发展重点学科、重点专项 GWGZLXK-2023-04

上海市妇女联合会 Year 2022

上海市加强公共卫生体系建设三年行动计划(2023-2025年)重点学科 GWVI-11.1-32

上海市公共卫生体系建设三年行动计划学科带头人计划 GWV-10.2-XD10

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    蒋泓,E-mail: h_jiang@fudan.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: R173

The prevalence and related factors of maternal anxiety and depression in Shanghai: a multicenter study based on health ecology model

Funds: 

The Key Discipline and Project of High-Quality Development of Public Health of School of Public Health, Fudan University-Jiading District Health Commission GWGZLXK-2023-04

Shanghai Women′s Federation Year 2022

The Key Discipline Program of Three-Year Strengthening Public Health Action Plan (2023-2025) of Shanghai GWVI-11.1-32

Discipline Leader Program of Three-Year Public Health Action Plan of Shanghai GWV-10.2-XD10

More Information
  • 摘要:   目的  了解上海孕产妇焦虑和抑郁现状,并基于健康生态学模型系统分析其相关因素。  方法  采用多阶段分层抽样,于2022年11月―2023年4月在上海开展多中心、横断面调查。使用7项广泛性焦虑障碍量表和患者健康问卷抑郁量表评价上海孕期及产后妇女焦虑、抑郁症状检出现状,并基于健康生态学模型分析孕产期焦虑、抑郁症状的相关因素及其效应量。  结果  共收集到有效问卷1 941份,孕期891份,产后1 050份。孕期焦虑和抑郁症状检出率分别为19.5%(95% CI: 0.169~0.221)、30.4%(95% CI: 0.274~0.334);产后焦虑和抑郁症状检出率分别为18.2%(95% CI: 0.159~0.205)、23.2%(95% CI: 0.207~0.258)。二分类logistic回归分析模型分析显示,处于孕早期、怀孕次数≥2次、有精神疾病史、孕期及产后有负性事件、身体活动较少、睡眠质量较差、性格内向、生活满意度低、社会支持程度低、孕产相关知识了解程度较差、孩子性别不符合期望、产后休养条件满意程度较低的孕产妇焦虑或抑郁症状检出风险增高(均P<0.05)。  结论  上海孕产妇焦虑、抑郁症状检出率较高。焦虑、抑郁症状的影响因素是多维度的,产前和产后检查时可根据危险因素确定高危人群,开展有针对性的心理健康保健服务。
  • 表  1  孕期焦虑、抑郁相关因素的单因素分析与多因素logistic回归分析模型

    Table  1.   Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis model of related factors of anxiety and depression during pregnancy

    变量Variable 总体
    Population
    焦虑Anxiety 抑郁Depression

    Yes
    χ2
    value
    P
    value
    效应量
    Effect
    size
    aOR值value
    (95% CI)

    Yes
    χ2
    value
    P
    value
    效应量
    Effect
    size
    aOR值value
    (95% CI)
    个人特质Personal traits
      年龄组/岁Age group/years 2.623 0.453 0.054 10.180 0.017 0.107
        <25 57(6.4) 10(17.5) 1.000 23(40.4) 1.000
        25~<30 308(34.6) 52(16.9) 0.795(0.327~1.934) 88(28.6) 0.604(0.288~1.266)
        30~<35 376(42.2) 79(21.0) 0.900(0.369~2.193) 127(33.8) 0.712(0.337~1.504)
        ≥35 150(16.8) 33(22.0) 1.112(0.416~2.974) 33(22.0) 0.432(0.184~1.018)
      孕期Trimester of pregnancy 4.293 0.117 0.069 1.647 0.439 0.043
        孕早期First trimester 228(25.6) 44(19.3) 1.000 77(33.8) 1.000
        孕中期Second trimester 288(32.3) 46(16.0) 0.647(0.381~1.098) 85(29.5) 0.708(0.450~1.112)
        孕晚期Third trimester 375(42.1) 84(22.4) 0.982(0.599~1.612) 109(29.1) 0.596(0.382~0.930)
      怀孕次数Number of pregnancies 9.410 0.002 0.103 1.573 0.210 0.042
        1 436(48.9) 67(15.4) 1.000 124(28.4) 1.000
        ≥2 455(51.1) 107(23.5) 1.562(1.015~2.401) 147(32.3) 1.345(0.921~1.962)
      既往妊娠并发症
    Pregnancy complication history
    1.843 0.175 0.045 0.017 0.897 0.004
        无No 843(94.6) 161(19.1) 1.000 256(30.4) 1.000
        有Yes 48(5.4) 13(27.1) 0.906(0.418~1.964) 15(31.3) 0.713(0.327~1.553)
      妊娠计划内Pregnancy plan 0.080 0.777 0.009 1.077 0.299 0.035
        否No 223(25.0) 45(20.2) 1.000 74(33.2) 1.000
        是Yes 668(75.0) 129(19.3) 1.454(0.923~2.289) 197(29.5) 1.109(0.744~1.653)
      精神疾病史
    History of mental illness
    2.852 0.091 0.057 7.811 0.005 0.094
        否No 876(98.3) 168(19.2) 1.000 261(29.8) 1.000
        是Yes 15(1.7) 6(40.0) 3.516(0.982~12.590) 10(66.7) 5.816(1.412~23.963)
      睡眠质量Sleep 23.687 < 0.001 0.163 89.789 < 0.001 0.317
        非常好Very good 89(10.0) 7(7.9) 1.000 11(12.4) 1.000
        好Good 283(31.8) 42(14.8) 2.211(0.836~5.848) 50(17.7) 1.568(0.701~3.508)
        一般General 427(47.9) 95(22.2) 3.191(1.233~8.261) 151(35.4) 3.488(1.606~7.577)
        不好/非常不好
    Poor/Very poor
    92(10.3) 30(32.6) 4.130(1.452~11.748) 59(64.1) 11.944(4.895~29.144)
    个体的行为生活
    方式及心理特征
    Behavior and lifestyles and
    psychologicalcharacteristics
      身体活动Physical activity 4.628 0.328 0.072 13.769 0.008 0.124
        从不/每周<1 d
    Never/Less than
    1 day per week
    356(40.0) 77(21.6) 1.000 130(36.5) 1.000
        每周1~2 d 1-2 day per week 247(27.7) 45(18.2) 0.791(0.488~1.282) 67(27.1) 0.623(0.407~0.954)
        每周3~4 d 3-4 day per week 148(16.6) 31(21.0) 0.927(0.539~1.594) 41(27.7) 0.713(0.432~1.177)
        每周5~6 d 5-6 day per week 62(7.0) 12(19.4) 0.682(0.302~1.539) 19(30.7) 0.735(0.364~1.483)
        每天Everyday 78(8.8) 9(11.5) 0.472(0.202~1.106) 14(18.0) 0.425(0.204~0.883)
      孕产相关知识
    Maternity related knowledge
    4.419 0.220 0.070 21.099 < 0.001 0.154
        非常了解Very familiar 58(6.5) 9(15.5) 1.000 6(10.3) 1.000
        较为了解Relatively familiar 269(30.2) 56(20.8) 1.841(0.699~4.847) 67(24.9) 3.887(1.348~11.208)
        一般General 376(42.2) 81(21.5) 1.643(0.630~4.285) 129(34.3) 5.319(1.869~15.137)
        不太了解/非常不了解
    Relatively unfamiliar/
    Very unfamiliar
    188(21.1) 28(14.9) 0.811(0.288~2.284) 69(36.7) 4.409(1.491~13.032)
      艾森克内外向分量表
    Score of Eysenck
    personality questionnaire
    9(6,11) 8(5,10) < 0.001 0.389 0.927(0.869~0.990) 8(5,10) < 0.001 0.410 0.947(0.892~1.005)
      生活满意度
    Score of satisfaction
    with life scale
    26(22,30) 23(20,27) < 0.001 0.319 0.934(0.901~0.970) 24(20,28) < 0.001 0.328 0.935(0.903~0.967)
    家庭和社区的人际网络
    Interpersonal network of
    family and community
      婚姻状况Marital status 0.009 0.924 0.003 1.870 0.171 0.046
        在婚不分居Married 854(95.8) 167(19.6) 1.000 256(30.0) 1.000
        分居/离婚/丧偶/未婚
    Separated/Divorced/
    Widowed /Unmarried
    37(4.2) 7(18.9) 0.887(0.318~2.470) 15(40.5) 0.954(0.407~2.240)
      孕期负性事件
    Negative events
    during pregnancy
    31.560 < 0.001 0.188 46.908 < 0.001 0.229
        否No 753(84.5) 123(16.3) 1.000 195(25.9) 1.000
        是Yes 138(15.5) 51(37.0) 1.925(1.216~3.049) 76(55.1) 2.607(1.670~4.070)
      社会支持
    Score of social
    support rate scale
    43(37,48) 38(34,44) < 0.001 0.336 0.948(0.920~0.976) 40(35,44) < 0.001 0.340 0.962(0.937~0.988)
    生活和工作条件
    Living and working conditions
      学历Education level 0.984 0.611 0.033 1.000 0.606 0.034
        高中及以下
    Senior high school or below
    173(19.4) 30(17.3) 1.000 58(33.5) 1.000
        大专/职大
    Junior college/
    Vocational university
    193(21.7) 36(18.7) 1.691(0.891~3.208) 58(30.1) 1.353(0.775~2.363)
        大学及以上University or above 525(58.9) 108(20.6) 1.763(0.971~3.200) 155(29.5) 1.444(0.860~2.425)
      工作状况Working status 1.928 0.381 0.047 4.154 0.125 0.068
        是Yes 538(60.4) 99(18.4) 1.000 155(28.8) 1.000
        休假Maternity leave 176(19.8) 34(19.3) 0.920(0.553~1.529) 51(29.0) 1.043(0.658~1.653)
        无职业Unemployed 177(19.9) 41(23.2) 1.528(0.909~2.569) 65(36.7) 1.386(0.866~2.219)
      居住条件Living condition 22.325 < 0.001 0.158 19.976 < 0.001 0.150
        非常满意Very satisfied 189(21.2) 23(12.2) 1.000 38(20.1) 1.000
        满意Satisfied 453(50.8) 83(18.3) 1.118(0.613~2.039) 134(29.6) 1.033(0.617~1.730)
        一般General 225(25.3) 57(25.3) 1.081(0.549~2.126) 90(40.0) 1.003(0.557~1.807)
        不满意/非常不满意
    Unsatisfied/Very unsatisfied
    24(2.7) 11(45.8) 2.170(0.705~6.685) 9(37.5) 0.514(0.165~1.597)
      自觉经济压力Economic pressure 37.243 < 0.001 0.204 26.786 < 0.001 0.173
        完全没压力No pressure at all 36(4.0) 3(8.3) 1.000 6(16.7) 1.000
        几乎没压力Almost no pressure 121(13.6) 17(14.0) 1.073(0.257~4.489) 26(21.5) 1.002(0.302~3.320)
        一般General 523(58.7) 85(16.3) 1.018(0.258~4.017) 152(29.1) 1.034(0.333~3.217)
        较有压力A little stressful 182(20.4) 55(30.2) 1.710(0.419~6.986) 69(37.9) 1.108(0.340~3.614)
        非常有压力Very stressful 29(3.3) 14(48.3) 3.624(0.744~17.644) 18(62.1) 3.031(0.737~12.467)
    当地、国家、全球的
    文化、政策环境
    Local, national, and global
    culture and policy
      孕妇学校参与度
    Maternity school participation
    3.532 0.473 0.063 8.952 0.062 0.100
        全程参加Attend all courses 31(3.5) 6(19.4) 1.000 6(19.4) 1.000
        参加大部分课程
    Attend most courses
    81(9.1) 17(21.0) 0.450(0.133~1.523) 19(23.5) 0.578(0.170~1.963)
        参加一半课程
    Attend half courses
    43(4.8) 13(30.2) 1.074(0.301~3.835) 14(32.6) 1.014(0.278~3.693)
        参加少部分课程
    Attend a few courses
    180(20.2) 34(18.9) 0.498(0.160~1.550) 45(25.0) 0.646(0.208~2.003)
        未参加
    Did not attend any courses
    556(62.4) 104(18.7) 0.462(0.157~1.362) 187(33.6) 0.818(0.277~2.413)
    注:①使用Mann-Whitney U检验;②以人数(占比/%)或M(P25P75)表示。
    Note: ① Mann-Whitney U test; ② Number of people (proportion/%) or M(P25P75).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  产后焦虑、抑郁相关因素的单因素分析与多因素logistic回归分析模型分析

    Table  2.   Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis model of related factors of anxiety and depression during postpartum

    变量Variable 总体
    Population
    焦虑Anxiety 抑郁Depression

    Yes
    χ2
    value
    P
    value
    效应量
    Effect
    size
    aOR值value
    (95% CI)

    Yes
    χ2
    value
    P
    value
    效应量
    Effect
    size
    aOR值value
    (95% CI)
    个人特质Personal traits
      年龄组/岁Age group/years 1.252 0.741 0.035 5.266 0.153 0.071
      <25 53(5.0) 12(22.6) 1.000 11(20.8) 1.000
      25~<30 318(30.3) 61(19.2) 1.044(0.425~2.566) 88(27.7) 2.211(0.854~5.726)
      30~<35 461(43.9) 81(17.6) 1.093(0.439~2.717) 96(20.8) 1.555(0.593~4.082)
      ≥35 218(20.8) 37(17.0) 1.050(0.393~2.807) 49(22.5) 1.708(0.614~4.746)
    产后时期/月Postpartum period/months 4.360 0.037 0.064 3.553 0.059 0.058
      <1 631(60.1) 102(16.16) 1.000 134(21.2) 1.000
      1~2 419(39.9) 89(21.24) 1.374(0.942~2.004) 110(26.3) 1.218(0.843~1.759)
    怀孕次数
    Number of pregnancies
    1.469 0.226 0.037 3.749 0.053 0.060
      1 602(57.3) 117(19.4) 1.000 153(25.4) 1.000
      ≥2 448(42.7) 74(16.5) 0.701(0.454~1.083) 91(20.3) 0.627(0.412~0.954)
    此次妊娠并发症
    Pregnancy complication
    0.882 0.348 0.029 0.420 0.517 0.020
      否No 797(75.9) 150(18.8) 1.000 189(23.7) 1.000
      是Yes 253(24.1) 41(16.2) 0.725(0.462~1.138) 55(21.7) 0.858(0.559~1.318)
    分娩中疼痛程度
    Pain level during delivery
    12.147 0.007 0.108 9.401 0.024 0.095
      完全不痛Completely painless 90(8.6) 9(10.0) 1.000 12(13.3) 1.000
      不太痛Painless 87(8.3) 13(14.9) 1.024(0.363~2.890) 15(17.2) 1.078(0.397~2.927)
      一般General 198(18.9) 26(13.1) 0.833(0.332~2.085) 43(21.7) 1.709(0.737~3.962)
      较痛/非常痛
    Painful/Very painful
    675(64.3) 143(21.2) 1.541(0.691~3.435) 174(25.8) 1.821(0.856~3.875)
    此次分娩孩子健康状况
    Health status of offspring
    4.515 0.034 0.066 1.674 0.196 0.040
      健康Health 936(89.1) 162(17.3) 1.000 212(22.7) 1.000
      疾病Disease 114(10.9) 29(25.4) 1.188(0.683~2.067) 32(28.1) 0.830(0.473~1.457)
    妊娠计划内Pregnancy plan 3.383 0.066 0.057 7.228 0.007 0.083
      否No 208(19.8) 47(22.6) 1.000 63(30.3) 1.000
      是Yes 842(80.2) 144(17.1) 0.959(0.605~1.523) 181(21.5) 0.768(0.493~1.196)
    个人特质Personal traits
      精神疾病史
    History of mental illness
    6.172 0.013 0.077 3.645 0.056 0.059
      否No 1 041(99.1) 186(17.9) 1.000 239(23.0) 1.000
      是Yes 9(0.9) 5(55.6) 7.829(1.683~36.424) 5(55.6) 7.053(1.400~35.530)
    睡眠质量Sleep 60.682 < 0.001 0.240 131.243 < 0.001 0.354
      非常好Very good 99(9.4) 4(4.0) 1.000 7(7.1) 1.000
      好Good 293(27.9) 28(9.6) 1.622(0.509~5.165) 23(7.8) 0.635(0.233~1.725)
      一般General 502(47.8) 104(20.7) 3.177(1.037~9.731) 132(26.3) 2.553(1.012~6.442)
      不好/非常不好Poor/Very poor 156(14.9) 55(35.3) 3.452(1.071~11.128) 82(52.6) 4.220(1.593~11.176)
    个体的行为生活方式
    及心理特征
    Behavior and lifestyles and
    psychological characteristics
      身体活动Physical activity 4.249 0.514 0.064 16.951 0.005 0.127
      从不Never 128(12.2) 28(21.9) 1.000 40(31.3) 1.000
      每周<1 d
    Less than 1 day per week
    204(19.4) 37(18.1) 0.916(0.479~1.752) 54(26.5) 0.870(0.477~1.586)
      每周1~2 d 1-2 days per week 300(28.6) 61(20.3) 1.171(0.639~2.146) 70(23.3) 0.752(0.422~1.338)
      每周3~4 d 3-4 days per week 200(19.0) 32(16.0) 0.923(0.475~1.795) 48(24.0) 1.002(0.546~1.839)
      每周5~6 d 5-6 days per week 92(8.8) 15(16.3) 0.948(0.423~2.128) 18(19.4) 0.706(0.328~1.519)
      每天Everyday 126(12.0) 18(14.3) 0.935(0.427~2.049) 14(11.1) 0.323(0.140~0.747)
    孕产相关知识
    Maternity related knowledge
    56.475 < 0.001 0.232 52.071 < 0.001 0.223
      非常了解Very familiar 122(11.6) 8(6.6) 1.000 14(11.5) 1.000
      较为了解Relatively familiar 497(47.3) 65(13.1) 1.603(0.685~3.754) 84(16.9) 1.167(0.558~2.444)
      一般General 380(36.2) 95(25.0) 2.748(1.171~6.446) 123(32.4) 1.698(0.811~3.557)
      不太了解/非常不了解
    Relatively unfamiliar/
    Very unfamiliar
    51(4.9) 23(45.1) 5.832(2.008~16.941) 23(45.1) 2.005(0.717~5.605)
    艾森克内外向分量表
    Score of Eysenck
    personality questionnaire
    8(5,10) 7(3,9) < 0.001 0.363 0.928(0.877~0.981) 6(3,9) < 0.001 0.327 0.895(0.848~0.945)
      生活满意度
    Score of satisfaction
    with life scale
    26(21,30) 21(19,25) < 0.001 0.284 0.948(0.914~0.982) 22(20,25) < 0.001 0.267 0.944(0.912~0.977)
    家庭和社区的人际网络
    Interpersonal network
    of family and community
      婚姻状况Marital status 0.019 0.889 0.004 0.032 0.858 0.006
      在婚不分居Married 1 032(98.3) 187(18.1) 1.000 239(23.2) 1.000
      分居/离婚/丧偶/未婚
    Separated/Divorced/
    Widowed /Unmarried
    18(1.7) 4(22.2) 1.042(0.283~3.828) 5(27.8) 1.295(0.349~4.800)
      怀孕后负性事件
    Negative events since pregnancy
    39.145 < 0.001 0.193 38.184 < 0.001 0.191
      否No 914(87.0) 140(15.3) 1.000 184(20.1) 1.000
      是Yes 136(13.0) 51(37.5) 1.789(1.095~2.921) 60(44.1) 1.659(1.014~2.715)
      社会支持_实际获得
    Score of postpartum
    support questionnaire
    188(163,215) 170(140,198) < 0.001 0.326 0.994(0.989~1.000) 167(142,191) < 0.001 0.301 0.991(0.985~0.996)
    生活和工作条件
    Living and working conditions
      学历Education level 4.341 0.114 0.064 0.304 0.859 0.017
      高中及以下
    Senior high school or below
    149(14.2) 33(22.1) 1.000 33(22.1) 1.000
      大专/职大
    Junior college/
    Vocational university
    228(21.7) 32(14.0) 0.528(0.273~1.019) 51(22.4) 1.057(0.553~2.021)
      大学及以上University or above 673(64.1) 126(18.7) 0.699(0.378~1.294) 160(23.8) 1.003(0.535~1.882)
      工作状况Work status 2.499 0.287 0.049 1.128 0.569 0.033
      产假Maternity leave 883(84.1) 158(17.9) 1.000 208(23.6) 1.000
      返岗工作Returning to work 16(1.5) 1(6.3) 0.203(0.022~1.899) 2(12.5) 0.299(0.053~1.705)
      无职业Unemployed 151(14.4) 32(21.2) 0.972(0.534~1.767) 34(22.5) 0.809(0.447~1.465)
      自觉经济压力Economic pressure 27.085 < 0.001 0.161 50.649 < 0.001 0.220
      完全没压力/几乎没压力
    No pressure at all/
    Almost no pressure
    174(16.6) 13(7.5) 1.000 16(9.2) 1.000
      一般General 582(55.4) 101(17.4) 1.089(0.533~2.224) 121(20.8) 0.926(0.475~1.807)
      较有压力A little stressful 259(24.7) 66(25.5) 1.359(0.633~2.918) 92(35.5) 1.589(0.777~3.247)
      非常有压力Very stressful 35(3.3) 11(31.4) 1.021(0.326~3.200) 15(42.9) 1.249(0.426~3.663)
      产后休养条件满意度
    Living condition
    90.864 < 0.001 0.294 116.087 < 0.001 0.333
      非常满意Very satisfied 237(22.6) 20(8.4) 1.000 21(8.9) 1.000
      满意Satisfied 549(52.3) 73(13.3) 0.934(0.511~1.706) 101(18.4) 1.425(0.782~2.598)
      一般General 245(23.3) 88(35.9) 1.839(0.952~3.550) 110(44.9) 2.633(1.365~5.080)
      不满意/非常不满意
    Unsatisfied/Very unsatisfied
    19(1.8) 10(52.6) 1.848(0.541~6.320) 12(63.2) 2.292(0.621~8.457)
      当地、国家、全球的
    文化、政策环境
    Local, national and
    global culture and policy
      孕妇学校参与度
    Maternity school participation
    0.709 0.950 0.026 1.717 0.788 0.040
      全程参加
    Attend all courses
    110(10.5) 17(15.5) 1.000 22(20.0) 1.000
      参加大部分课程
    Attend most courses
    149(14.2) 27(18.1) 1.091(0.507~2.348) 31(20.8) 0.923(0.438~1.946)
      参加一半课程
    Attend half courses
    51(4.9) 9(17.6) 0.825(0.299~2.276) 11(21.6) 0.841(0.316~2.238)
      参加少部分课程
    Attend a few courses
    171(16.3) 31(18.1) 0.731(0.341~1.571) 42(24.6) 0.881(0.423~1.832)
      未参加
    Did not attend any courses
    569(54.2) 107(18.8) 0.588(0.301~1.149) 138(24.3) 0.684(0.359~1.305)
      对孩子性别满意程度
    Attitude towards
    children′s gender
    18.786 < 0.001 0.134 17.362 < 0.001 0.129
      满意Satisfie 737(70.2) 112(15.2) 1.000 148(20.1) 1.000
      较满意Relatively satisfied 69(6.6) 23(33.3) 2.403(1.264~4.567) 27(39.1) 2.323(1.220~4.421)
      无所谓/不太满意
    General/Relatively satisfied
    244(23.2) 56(23.0) 1.003(0.652~1.543) 69(28.3) 0.878(0.575~1.340)
    注:①使用Mann-Whitney U检验;②以人数(占比/%)或M(P25P75)表示。
    Note: ① Mann-Whitney U test; ② Number of people (proportion/%) or M(P25P75).
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-08
  • 修回日期:  2023-10-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-02-05
  • 刊出日期:  2024-01-10

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